Kulpin E.S.  The humans and the nature in China. Moscow: «Science», the main edition of east literature, 1990. – 245 p. / Кульпин Э.С. Человек и природа в Китае. М.: Наука. Главная редакция восточной литературы, 1990. – 245 с.


Even though man and nature are obviously interlinked, natu­ral scientists and historians have so far regarded them as separate subjects in their works. In his book, Man and Nature in Chi­na, E. S. Kulpin sought a reverse approach which relies on his concept of socio-natural history of China based on a number of scientific hypotheses.

The Chinese woke up to their dependence on nature at the turn of the second millennium В. С., as their ancestors in Huan-he River basin felt the pinch of a progressively colder and more arid climate of the Iron Age. They came to need a higher calory intake, as the productivity in various spheres of the economy which had developed in more favorable climatic conditions began to decline. A contracting vegetation period and increasing iridization required new fast-ripening and drought-resistant varieties of plants and alternative farming techniques.

With production tapering off and attendant shortfalls in the surplus and, possibly, necessary product, this severely strained the social structure, the distribution system, and its ideological underpinnings, and triggered political and social troubles. To continue at the helm, the power structure had to lead a search for higher productivity and were tempted to do so by taking the easy way out, that is, plundering their neighbors.

In the 8th century’ В. С. the united Chinese Chou state fell apart and resulting unceasing internal strife raged into the 3rd century B.C. All the while a search was on for higher producti­vity through changes in production, more stringent control over it by the ruling classes, and more advanced technologies for plant selection, the use of fertilizer, and irrigation, along with new iron tools and employment of draught animals. The rewards came two or three centuries on.

These conditions, problems and ways and even time of tack­ling them have parallels in Europe, primarily in Greece in the colder climate of the Iron Age. But there were big differences as well. To begin with, China developed a monoculture economy built around grain production; next, the colder weather was res­ponsible for the disappearance of a great deal of animals and plants which were crowded out of their natural habitats by a single domesticated specie. Furthermore, the biota being inadvertently hemmed in and the natural landscape turning anthropoge­nic, mostly cultivated land, man in China was obligated to accept responsibility for the conservation of nature. This he did by the only means possible — working the land for all its worth.

Keeping the soil maximally productive requires, first, advan­ced farming techniques; second, year-round labour-intensive soil-conservation arrangements; third, strict compliance with farming technologies; fourth, artificial irrigation (in arid areas); fifth, developing a thick layer of man-made black earth through the use of organic fertilizer; and sixth, avoiding any interruptions in pro­duction, like festivals, wars, uprisings, and suchlike.

The Chinese did not wake up to this all until much of their cultivated land grew unproductive, temporarily or forever. As an ecological crisis developed, highlighted by the Huang-he overflo­wing its banks for the first time in 602 В. С. (Ecological crisis is the inability of natural environment to self-regulate or this self-regulation turning against man.) It was not seemingly until the 7th century В. С. that strong action was taken to reverse this hard-hitting crisis. There emerged various alternative sche­mes of social management, detailed economic recommendations and a variety of experiments in politics, social-economic relations, and the economy. Technological improvements also occurred in the basic industry — farming. Higher productivity led the rulers, instead of plundering their neighbors, to making their own eco­nomy still more effective and protects it against outside incursions. This could be handled by big empires with big standing armies. The concentration of power culminated in the 3rd century В. С. with unification of the whole country and territorial expansion, by incorporation of the Yangtze River basin and southern China.

In the Former Han dynasty (206 В. С. to 23 A. D.) an inven­tory was taken of the many centuries of conflicting views, admi­nistrative schemes, social relations and technologies, as well as interaction between nature and people, and ideas of it all. The next nearly two thousand years of socio-ecological stability had three major underlying factors: a permanent territory of sett­lement deterring extensive development and technologies, stability of the size of population which stabilized demographic pressure on land, as well as enduring life patterns, like ideology, value sys­tems, and principles of politics, economics, and social-economic and socio-ecological relations.

The socio-ecological stability thus attained was relative and incomplete in all its elements. The socio-natural homeostasis at each particular stage had continuous constructive and destructive processes at play. On balance, society reached a technical and technological sophistication to resist global climatic changes, like a small ice age in the middle of this millennium. And yet the sta­te was unprepared to ward off inroads by barbarian hordes, though far less culturally and technically advanced than the Hans.

An economic-ecological «perpetuum mobile» had taken shape in millennia-long experiments by the second millennium A. D.,and only in southern China. What made it    possible   was   new cultivation. The country’s north failed, field all it could. More specifically, no major irrigation systems were created. The focus of socio-ecological stability shifted to the south as did a strong migration torrent which kept up for two thousand years.

The above three enduring factors were so only conditionally and essentially statistical averages. The changelessness was like skiers running round in circles on sloping terrain. The country went though recurrent boom-recession cycles. During the slumps cultivated lands were left untended and some lost for good, but were recultivated during the upturns. The population alternately grew or diminished in such times, never reaching a point over­straining its environment. In all probability, it never topped a hundred millions or so. Administration efficiency even fluctuated. The cumbersome bureaucratic machinery progressively deteriora­ted as bureaucratism intensified. For all that the socio-ecological equilibrium was retained inasmuch as all the changes were «wit­hin the norm» and did not overwhelm the homeostasis1 capacity for self-regulation.

But such a homeostasis just cannot go on forever. The ecolo­gical situation was declining, slowly but irredeemably. If allowed to take its natural course, a socio-ecological crisis would be expec­ted sometime in the third or fourth millennium. It actually set in earlier.

In the 18th century, quite inexplicably, population growth overstrained the homeostasis. It kept its upward climb and brought on a new socio-ecological crisis. This caused deprivation and degeneration in rural areas as well as social and political upheavals; capitalism had no chance of taking root, and people developed a peculiar mechanism to survive in extreme ecological conditions.

This second crisis was essentially different from the first. While the first crisis had been triggered by nature and was basi­cally ecological within a single socio-natural context, the second was of a quite opposite nature. A shift of emphasis entailed cont­rasting ways of addressing the challenges: first came political and social changes and only then the economic and ecological.


Social-Natural History. Selected lectures I-XVI schools  (1992-2007).

Ed. E.Kulpin (Kulpin-Gubaidullin)/ -M.: KomKniga. 2007. –

The research method of Socio-natural History is the systemic analysis of historical processes. Socio-natural History is a scientific discipline at the joint of humanities and natural sciences, using original methodology and studying interrelation, interaction and mutual influence of processes, phenomena and events in the life of society and Nature. The general turn of researchers to the phenomenon of mentality (which has deep historical roots is an ultimate aim of researches in SNH) agrees with the research priorities of the United Nations in the XXI century. These priorities were embodied, first of all, in the most fundamental international research of the present and near future of the Planet issued within the framework of the Program of the United Nations on environment UNEP — the second Report on environmental conditions under the project GEO-2. In this report mentality is for the first time mentioned as a primary factor in overcoming present global eco-social crisis, and recent Russian official documents for the first time have characterized the situation on the Planet as an eco-social crisis.


Introduction. What is SNH?

(Interview with E. Kulpin, provided by I. Khaliy)

Part 1.  Theoretical problems and the common questions

Tatiana F. Stolyarova.  Social-natural History as One of the Grounds of  Forming the Modern World-outlook

Akop P. Nazaretyan. Technology and Psychology: the hypothesis of techno-humanitarian balance

Leonid E. Grinin. The Early State Analogues

Albert A. Burkhanov. Ancient and Medieval Lebap

 Anton Kogan. Socio-natural history and the prospects of the study of ethnical processes in Kashmir


Part 2.  Social-Natural History of the Russia

Eduard S. Kulpin. Formation of the Basic value system of Russians

Vladimir I. Pantin. The second social and ecological crisis in Russia: principal causes and consequences

Oleg N. Yanitsky. Russian Environmental Movement in 1985–2005: Changing Trends, Shifting Values

Olga Aksenova. Re-institutionalization of Russian environmental policy: environment vs nature?

Irina A. Khaliy. Russian locality: introduction of globalization and ecopolitical conflicts

Summaries of books of SNH



The History and Modernity 2011-2

The theory

Konstantin Chichinadze. Application of general systems theory in ethnology (definition of national interest and nationalist ideology of the small nations).

The majority of theoretical designs in social studies is deprived of firm methodological basis. That prevents identifications of laws existing between the certain phenomena. To correct noted state of affairs, the most effective way could become application in social studies of methods and approaches generated within natural-science disciplines. The choice of a theme of research is not connected with author’s political views and article does not contain estimation judgments, and it is only attempt of objective analysis of ideology of nationalism, according to the general theory of systems.

Key words: The general theory of systems, ethnology, national interest, ideology of nationalism.


History of societies and civilizations

Iskander Izmailov. Islam in Volga Bulgaria: propagation and the regional special features

Article is dedicated to one of the most important aspects of the history of Volga Bulgaria – to propagation in this medieval country of Islam and its regional special features/ The author proves, what process of the penetration of new in the religion occurred in IX – first half X A.C. To the boundary of the X-XI A.C. substances Islam it became established religion, which depended on the support of state and widely was extended in all layers of society. Islam became the basis of the state ideology of bulgar elite, and its ritual practice ruled in the life of bulgar society at end of tenth century.  Islam in Bulgaria acquired the special features, which determined the nature of Islam up to XIX A.C.

Key words: Volga Bulgaria, Islam, paganism and world religions, rituals and customs, moslem civilization, local special features


Vadim Kulachkov . Popular images of authority in the first  post-revolutionary decade in Russia

The relation of the peasantry to power traditionally has been ambivalent. On the one hand, the peasants, dependent on government procurement of grain and other commodities, can not imagine themselves outside the sphere of state influence on the other — the state, identified with the mass of the representatives of governmental bodies, it was perceived as a negative value and evil. Inconsistency socio-economic policy authorities social expectations of peasantry contributed to the gradual destruction of the ideal image of the Soviet government, formed in post-revolutionary period. In the mass consciousness of the peasantry of the Western region of Russia attended the various images of power — from the ideal, which shaped the propaganda — to real, on the basis of life practices.

Key words: Popular images of power, the peasantry, the power of the state, the Western region of Russia, the post-revolutionary period


Kulpin E.S. Why has not been executed Genghis Khan’s  precept.

From all, that we know about the Mongolian intrusion into the Europe, perhaps, till now not clear the unexpected termination of invasion. Incomprehensibility of reasons for it is connected with traditional representation of conquerors as a single whole, though it is well known, that they were not homogeneous neither socially, nor ethnically and, accordingly, had different interests. The divergence of interests of turks and Mongols, could compel to stop the intrusion into the Western Europe.

Key words: The Mongolian conquests, the nature, ethnoses, a policy, economy.


Yao Van. The geopolitical aspects of continental and seaside Chinese culture

The author of article believes the Chinese seaside and overseas culture is direct continuation of continental culture of China. Though the culture of the central plain was self-sufficient due to the rich resources and huge territory, and prevailed over cultures of less developed regions and nationalities, nevertheless during its distribution not confrontation but peace dialogue has prevailed. The dialogue between midland and seaside culture proceeds even now.

Key words: China, the Peoples Republic of China, civilization of the central China, continental culture of China, seaside culture of China.


The nature and society

Olga Aksenova. Illusion of ecological modernization

The paper examines the ecological modernization process, which is interpreted as a technocratic tendency of pro-ecological transformations. The results of ecomoderanization are analyzed including standartization of decision-making process and reduction of the reflection to the assessment of management effectiveness. The concept of the environmental comfort as the goal of modern environmental management is introduced. The necessity of the elaboration of the alternative models of environmental change is considered. The paper demonstrates an example of the revealing of these alternatives through analysis on the Soviet industrialization strategy, which was based on science researches and allowed a considerable degree of freedom in professional decision-making.

Key words: environmental modernization, environmental risk, technology, environmental comfort, environmental management, industrial society, postmodernity.


Klimenko V.V., Mikushina O.V. Unusual dynamics of global temperature in the beginning of XXI century or natural factors against anthropogenous factors.

It is clear, that observable global rise in temperature grows out joint influence on climatic system not only anthropogenous, but also natural factors. Some of the last also are the reason of modern climatic paradox. The analysis on the basis of identification of these factors allows to give the forecast of development of a climatic situation in the world in nearest decades. This forecast has no catastrophic character.

Key words: Global warming, anthropogenous and natural factors, process, dynamics, the forecast.


Olejnikov J.V.  Motive forces bifurcation of evolution of socionatural universum .

The modern mankind has entered in unprecedented — qualitatively new — stage of the development. For the first time in history of the Earth the individual became the force, capable to change evolution of planetary socionatural universum. This circumstance radically changes all system of world outlook representations about place and roles of the person in the nature and society, all way of life of people, their system of values and priorities that should cause change of a way of manufacture and all social relations, education systems and education, say, to transform all material life of people and representations about it.

Key words: Noosphere, evolution, way of manufacture, social relations, system of values


Vasily Ushnitsky. Landscape role in formation of the Yakut ethnos

The article examines influence of northern landscape on formation of the Yakut ethnos. A severe environment has defined a way of life of the person and has forged the Yakut character. Diligence, patience, endurance, goodwill became the basic features of northern ethnos.

Key words: Landscape, the Yakut ethnos, environment, cattle breeding, taiga, pastures, fishery


Irina Khaliy. Society and the nature: evolution of the newest theoretical concepts

In the paper evaluation of theoretical concepts concerning society and nature interactions is analyzed. It is stressed that transformation is connected to change of the installations concerning, first of all, with change of the social actor, responsible for preservation of the nature and support of immediate environment. Originally (1970th) were supposed that the main actor in the environmental sphere should be the society as a whole and its concrete components. Such as social movements and nongovernmental organizations, local communities, structures of management and policy. After (1990th) the accent was made already on activity of management structures. At last, in the conditions of modern processes of globalization when locality isn’t represented significant, including their environment, climate change is declared to be the basic environmental problem, which means that owners of the large capital can actively participate in its resolving only.

Key words: theoretical concepts, society and nature interactions, social movements, local communities, environmental policy and management, climate change.


On the verge of centuries

Projogina S.V. Immigrants in the Europe: social outcasts or the «forgotten» citizens?

It is written much about what is «immigrant zones» in France by both political scientists and the sociologists who investigate processes of integration of north-Africans in France. The professional writer — ethnic algerien Mounsi — managed to recreate a bright picture of geographical, social and psychological alienation of the people who have left the native grounds in searches of the best lot, but found on foreign land only sharp sensation of abandonment, neglect, out casting, territorial and cultural marginality, despite the attempts of rooting in the society which once has given to Muslim emigrants an opportunity of hope for a new life.

Key words: Muslim immigration to France, a «zonal» landscape, marginal being, social «abandonment», integration difficulties, decomposition of generations, assimilation claims.


Shamil Umerov. Space and time: people of «bottom» foreign travel as proto genre in the newest Russian literature

The article discusses a number of recently published books, which share a common theme: the characters, which spring from low social groups, rather expressively describe their foreign travels. The author of the article views that the development of this kind of “travel” genre is associated with the continuation of the socio-historical processes that have been happening in the world over the last two decades.

Key words: travel, the abroad, the bottom of the society, genre, fiction, inter-ethnic relations, globalization.     


Connection of times

Marta Zhakovska. Evolution of the Russian youth culture.

Culture and a politics — are inseparable. Ascertaining is banal, but I would like to examine it on very interesting, in my opinion, example. The purpose of this article is to show, how culture of the Russian youth has changed in last years and how this evolution has influenced shape of those political movements in Russia whose members are mainly representatives of youth.

Key words: Youth, evolution, culture, socially political movements.